IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: violacein synthase

Reaction: (1) protoviolaceinate + NAD(P)H + O2 = violaceinate + NAD(P)+ + H2O
(2) protodeoxyviolaceinate + NAD(P)H + O2 = deoxyviolaceinate + NAD(P)+ + H2O

For diagram of reaction click here.

Glossary: violacein = 5-(5-hydroxy-3-indolyl)-3-(3-oxinodolylidene)-2-oxopyrroline

Other name(s): proviolaceinate monooxygenase; vioC (gene name)

Systematic name: protoviolaceinate,NAD(P)H:O2 oxidoreductase

Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum, participates in the biosynthesis of the violet pigment violacein. The products, violaceinate and deoxyviolaceinate, undergo non-enzymic autooxidation into violacein and deoxyviolacein, respectively.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number:


1. Balibar, C.J. and Walsh, C.T. In vitro biosynthesis of violacein from L-tryptophan by the enzymes VioA-E from Chromobacterium violaceum. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 15444-15457. [PMID: 17176066]

2. Shinoda, K., Hasegawa, T., Sato, H., Shinozaki, M., Kuramoto, H., Takamiya, Y., Sato, T., Nikaidou, N., Watanabe, T. and Hoshino, T. Biosynthesis of violacein: a genuine intermediate, protoviolaceinic acid, produced by VioABDE, and insight into VioC function. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2007) 4140-4142. [PMID: 17925955]

[EC created 2016]

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