IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: carotenoid ε hydroxylase

Reaction: (1) α-carotene + [reduced NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = α-cryptoxanthin + [oxidized NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(2) zeinoxanthin + [reduced NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = lutein + [oxidized NADPH-hemoprotein reductase] + H2O

For diagram of reaction click here

Other name(s): CYP97C1; LUT1; CYP97C; carotene ε-monooxygenase

Systematic name: α-carotene,[reduced NADPH-hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)

Comments: A P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number:


1. Pogson, B., McDonald, K.A., Truong, M., Britton, G. and DellaPenna, D. Arabidopsis carotenoid mutants demonstrate that lutein is not essential for photosynthesis in higher plants. Plant Cell 8 (1996) 1627-1639. [PMID: 8837513]

2. Tian, L., Musetti, V., Kim, J., Magallanes-Lundback, M. and DellaPenna, D. The Arabidopsis LUT1 locus encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 family that is required for carotenoid ε-ring hydroxylation activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (2004) 402-407. [PMID: 14709673]

3. Stigliani, A.L., Giorio, G. and D'Ambrosio, C. Characterization of P450 carotenoid β- and ε-hydroxylases of tomato and transcriptional regulation of xanthophyll biosynthesis in root, leaf, petal and fruit. Plant Cell Physiol 52 (2011) 851-865. [PMID: 21450689]

4. Chang, S., Berman, J., Sheng, Y., Wang, Y., Capell, T., Shi, L., Ni, X., Sandmann, G., Christou, P. and Zhu, C. Cloning and functional characterization of the maize (Zea mays L.) Carotenoid Epsilon Hydroxylase Gene. PLoS One 10 (2015) e0128758. [PMID: 26030746]

5. Reddy, C.S., Lee, S.H., Yoon, J.S., Kim, J.K., Lee, S.W., Hur, M., Koo, S.C., Meilan, J., Lee, W.M., Jang, J.K., Hur, Y., Park, S.U. and Kim, A.YB. Molecular cloning and characterization of carotenoid pathway genes and carotenoid content in Ixeris dentata var. albiflora. Molecules 22 (2017) . [PMID: 28858245]

[EC created 2011]

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