IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: [histone-H3]-N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine4 FAD-dependent demethylase

Reaction: a [histone H3]-N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine4 + 2 acceptor + 2 H2O = a [histone H3]-L-lysine4 + 2 formaldehyde + 2 reduced acceptor (overall reaction)
(1a) a [histone H3]-N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine4 + acceptor + H2O = a [histone H3]-N6-methyl-L-lysine4 + formaldehyde + reduced acceptor
(1b) a [histone H3]-N6-methyl-L-lysine4 + acceptor + H2O = a [histone H3]-L-lysine4 + formaldehyde + reduced acceptor

Other name(s): KDM1 (gene name); LSD1 (gene name); lysine-specific histone demethylase 1

Systematic name: [histone-H3]-N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine-4:acceptor oxidoreductase (demethylating)

Comments: The enzyme specifically removes methyl groups from mono- and dimethylated lysine4 of histone 3. During the reaction the substrate is oxidized by the FAD cofactor of the enzyme to generate the corresponding imine, which is subsequently hydrolysed in the form of formaldehyde.The enzyme is similar to flavin amine oxidases, and differs from all other known histone lysine demethylases, which are iron(II)- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. The physiological electron acceptor is not known with certainty. In vitro the enzyme can use oxygen, which is reduced to hydrogen peroxide, but generation of hydrogen peroxide in the chromatin environment is unlikely as it will result in oxidative damage of DNA.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number:


1. Forneris, F., Binda, C., Vanoni, M.A., Mattevi, A. and Battaglioli, E. Histone demethylation catalysed by LSD1 is a flavin-dependent oxidative process. FEBS Lett. 579 (2005) 2203-2207. [PMID: 15811342]

2. Forneris, F., Battaglioli, E., Mattevi, A. and Binda, C. New roles of flavoproteins in molecular cell biology: histone demethylase LSD1 and chromatin. FEBS J. 276 (2009) 4304-4312. [PMID: 19624733]

[EC created 2019]

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