IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: fumarate reductase (cytochrome)

Reaction: succinate + 2 ferricytochrome c = fumarate + 2 ferrocytochrome c

Other name(s): fccA (gene name); fcc3 (gene name); flavocytochrome c3

Systematic name: succinate:ferricytochrome-c oxidoreductase

Comments: Contains a non-covalently bound FAD cofactor and four heme c groups. The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Shewanella frigidimarina, is a soluble periplasmic protein that functions as a terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic growth. The direct electron donor is the membrane-bound tetraheme c-type cytochrome CymA (EC, quinol—cytochrome-c reductase), which receives the electrons from the membrane quinol pool.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number:


1. Pealing, S.L., Black, A.C., Manson, F.D., Ward, F.B., Chapman, S.K. and Reid, G.A. Sequence of the gene encoding flavocytochrome c from Shewanella putrefaciens: a tetraheme flavoenzyme that is a soluble fumarate reductase related to the membrane-bound enzymes from other bacteria. Biochemistry 31 (1992) 12132-12140. [PMID: 1333793]

2. Pealing, S.L., Cheesman, M.R., Reid, G.A., Thomson, A.J., Ward, F.B. and Chapman, S.K. Spectroscopic and kinetic studies of the tetraheme flavocytochrome c from Shewanella putrefaciens NCIMB400. Biochemistry 34 (1995) 6153-6158. [PMID: 7742319]

3. Gordon, E.HJ., Pealing, S.L., Chapman, S.K., Ward, F.B. and Reid, G.A. Physiological function and regulation of flavocytochrome c3, the soluble fumarate reductase from Shewanella putrefaciens NCIMB 400. Microbiology (Reading) 144 (1998) 937-945. [PMID: 9579067]

4. Doherty, M.K., Pealing, S.L., Miles, C.S., Moysey, R., Taylor, P., Walkinshaw, M.D., Reid, G.A. and Chapman, S.K. Identification of the active site acid/base catalyst in a bacterial fumarate reductase: a kinetic and crystallographic study. Biochemistry 39 (2000) 10695-10701. [PMID: 10978153]

5. Reid, G.A., Miles, C.S., Moysey, R.K., Pankhurst, K.L. and Chapman, S.K. Catalysis in fumarate reductase. Biochim. Biophys Acta 1459 (2000) 310-315. [PMID: 11004445]

6. Schwalb, C., Chapman, S.K. and Reid, G.A. The membrane-bound tetrahaem c-type cytochrome CymA interacts directly with the soluble fumarate reductase in Shewanella. Biochem Soc Trans. 30 (2002) 658-662. [PMID: 12196158]

[EC created 2022]

Return to EC 1.3.2 home page
Return to EC 1.3 home page
Return to EC 1 home page
Return to Enzymes home page
Return to IUBMB Biochemical Nomenclature home page