IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-phospholipid reductase

Reaction: a 2,3-bis-(O-phytanyl)-sn-glycero-phospholipid + 16 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster = a 2,3-bis-(O-geranylgeranyl)-sn-glycero-phospholipid + 16 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 16 H+

For diagram of reaction click here.

Other name(s): AF0464 (gene name); 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate reductase (donor)

Systematic name: 2,3-bis-(O-phytanyl)-sn-glycero-phospholipid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids. It catalyses the reduction of all 8 double bonds in 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-phospholipids and all 4 double bonds in 3-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol phospholipids with comparable activity. Unlike EC, 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate reductase [NAD(P)H], this enzyme shows no activity with NADPH, and requires a dedicated ferredoxin [4].

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number:


1. Murakami, M., Shibuya, K., Nakayama, T., Nishino, T., Yoshimura, T. and Hemmi, H. Geranylgeranyl reductase involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. FEBS J. 274 (2007) 805-814. [PMID: 17288560]

2. Sato, S., Murakami, M., Yoshimura, T. and Hemmi, H. Specific partial reduction of geranylgeranyl diphosphate by an enzyme from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius yields a reactive prenyl donor, not a dead-end product. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 3923-3929. [PMID: 18375567]

3. Sasaki, D., Fujihashi, M., Iwata, Y., Murakami, M., Yoshimura, T., Hemmi, H. and Miki, K. Structure and mutation analysis of archaeal geranylgeranyl reductase. J. Mol. Biol. 409 (2011) 543-557. [PMID: 21515284]

4. Isobe, K., Ogawa, T., Hirose, K., Yokoi, T., Yoshimura, T. and Hemmi, H. Geranylgeranyl reductase and ferredoxin from Methanosarcina acetivorans are required for the synthesis of fully reduced archaeal membrane lipid in Escherichia coli cells. J. Bacteriol. 196 (2014) 417-423. [PMID: 24214941]

[EC created 2013 as EC, transferred 2015 to EC]

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