Accepted name: short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: a short-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = a short-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
Glossary: a short-chain acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA thioester where the acyl chain contains less than 6 carbon atoms.
Other name(s): butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase; butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase; butyryl dehydrogenase; unsaturated acyl-CoA reductase; ethylene reductase; enoyl-coenzyme A reductase; unsaturated acyl coenzyme A reductase; butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase; short-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase; short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; 3-hydroxyacyl CoA reductase; butanoyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase; ACADS (gene name).
Systematic name: short-chain acyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD as prosthetic group. One of several enzymes that catalyse the first step in fatty acids β-oxidation. The enzyme catalyses the oxidation of saturated short-chain acyl-CoA thioesters to give a trans 2,3-unsaturated product by removal of the two pro-R-hydrogen atoms. The enzyme from beef liver accepts substrates with acyl chain lengths of 3 to 8 carbon atoms. The highest activity was reported with either butanoyl-CoA  or pentanoyl-CoA . The enzyme from rat has only 10% activity with hexanoyl-CoA (compared to butanoyl-CoA) and no activity with octanoyl-CoA . cf. EC 18.104.22.168, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 22.214.171.124, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and EC 126.96.36.199, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EAWAG-BBD, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9027-88-7
1. Mahler, H.R. Studies on the fatty acid oxidizing system of animal tissue. IV. The prosthetic group of butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 206 (1954) 13-26. [PMID: 13130522]
2. Green, D.E., Mii, S., Mahler, H.R. and Bock, R.M. Studies on the fatty acid oxidizing system of animal tissue. III. Butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 206 (1954) 1-12. [PMID: 13130521]
3. Beinert, H. Acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Eds), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 447-466.
4. Shaw, L. and Engel, P.C. The purification and properties of ox liver short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochem. J. 218 (1984) 511-520. [PMID: 6712627]
5. Thorpe, C. and Kim, J.J. Structure and mechanism of action of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. FASEB J. 9 (1995) 718-725. [PMID: 7601336]
6. Ikeda, Y., Ikeda, K.O. and Tanaka, K. Purification and characterization of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation of the holo- and apoenzymes and conversion of the apoenzyme to the holoenzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 1311-1325. [PMID: 3968063]
7. McMahon, B., Gallagher, M.E. and Mayhew, S.G. The protein coded by the PP2216 gene of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase that oxidises only short-chain aliphatic substrates. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 250 (2005) 121-127. [PMID: 16024185]