IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: Kdo2-lipid IVA acyltransferase

Reaction: a fatty acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-[lipid IVA] = an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)-[lipid IVA] + an [acyl-carrier protein]

For diagram of reaction, click here

Glossary: Kdo = 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonic acid
a lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phospho-α-D-glucopyranose
an α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-(acyl)-[lipid IVA] = 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→4)-3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosyl-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-(acyloxy)acyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-4-O-phospho-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxyacyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose

Other name(s): LpxL; htrB (gene name); dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA O-dodecanoyltransferase; lauroyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:Kdo2-lipid IVA O-lauroyltransferase; (Kdo)2-lipid IVA lauroyltransferase; α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-(2→6)-lipid IVA lauroyltransferase; dodecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:Kdo2-lipid IVA O-dodecanoyltransferase; Kdo2-lipid IVA lauroyltransferase

Systematic name: fatty acyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-[lipid IVA] O-acyltransferase

Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated outer membrane glycolipid lipid A. It transfers an acyl group to the 3-O position of the 3R-hydroxyacyl already attached to the nitrogen of the non-reducing glucosamine molecule. The enzyme from the bacterium Escherichia coli is specific for lauryl (C12) acyl groups, giving the enzyme its previous accepted name. However, enzymes from different species accept highly variable substrates.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number:


1. Clementz, T., Bednarski, J.J. and Raetz, C.R. Function of the htrB high temperature requirement gene of Escherichia coli in the acylation of lipid A: HtrB catalyzed incorporation of laurate. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 12095-12102. [PMID: 8662613]

2. van der Ley, P., Steeghs, L., Hamstra, H.J., ten Hove, J., Zomer, B. and van Alphen, L. Modification of lipid A biosynthesis in Neisseria meningitidis lpxL mutants: influence on lipopolysaccharide structure, toxicity, and adjuvant activity. Infect. Immun. 69 (2001) 5981-5990. [PMID: 11553534]

3. McLendon, M.K., Schilling, B., Hunt, J.R., Apicella, M.A. and Gibson, B.W. Identification of LpxL, a late acyltransferase of Francisella tularensis, Infect. Immun. 75 (2007) 5518-5531. [PMID: 17724076]

4. Six, D.A., Carty, S.M., Guan, Z. and Raetz, C.R. Purification and mutagenesis of LpxL, the lauroyltransferase of Escherichia coli lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 8623-8637. [PMID: 18656959]

5. Fathy Mohamed, Y., Hamad, M., Ortega, X.P. and Valvano, M.A. The LpxL acyltransferase is required for normal growth and penta-acylation of lipid A in Burkholderia cenocepacia, Mol. Microbiol. 104 (2017) 144-162. [PMID: 28085228]

[EC created 2014, modified 2021]

Return to EC 2.3.1 home page
Return to EC 2.3 home page
Return to EC 2 home page
Return to Enzymes home page
Return to IUBMB Biochemical Nomenclature home page