IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: phosphoglycerol geranylgeranyltransferase

Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate + sn-glycerol 1-phosphate = diphosphate + 3-(O-geranylgeranyl)-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate

For diagram of reaction, click here

Glossary: sn-glyceryl phosphate = sn-glycerol 1-phosphate = (S)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl dihydrogen phosphate

Other name(s): glycerol phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase; geranylgeranyl-transferase (ambiguous); prenyltransferase (ambiguous); (S)-3-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase; (S)-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase; GGGP synthase; (S)-GGGP synthase; GGGPS; geranylgeranyl diphosphate:sn-glyceryl phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase; geranylgeranyl diphosphate:sn-glycerol-1-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase

Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate:sn-glycerol-1-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase

Comments: This cytosolic enzyme catalyses the first pathway-specific step in the biosynthesis of the core membrane diether lipids in archaebacteria [2]. Requires Mg2+ for maximal activity [2]. It catalyses the alkylation of the primary hydroxy group in sn-glycerol 1-phosphate by geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) in a prenyltransfer reaction where a hydroxy group is the nucleophile in the acceptor substrate [2]. The other enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polar lipids in Archaea are EC (sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase), EC (geranylgeranylglycerol-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase) and EC (CDP-archaeol synthase), which lead to the formation of CDP-unsaturated archaeol. The final step in the pathway involves the addition of L-serine, with concomitant removal of CMP, leading to the production of unsaturated archaetidylserine [5].

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 124650-69-7


1. Zhang, D.-L., Daniels, L. and Poulter, C.D. Biosynthesis of archaebacterial membranes. Formation of isoprene ethers by a prenyl transfer reaction. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112 (1990) 1264-1265.

2. Chen, A., Zhang, D. and Poulter, C.D. (S)-Geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase. Purification and characterization of the first pathway-specific enzyme in archaebacterial membrane lipid biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 21701-21705. [PMID: 8408023]

3. Nemoto, N., Oshima, T. and Yamagishi, A. Purification and characterization of geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase from a thermoacidophilic archaeon, Thermoplasma acidophilum. J. Biochem. 133 (2003) 651-657. [PMID: 12801917]

4. Payandeh, J., Fujihashi, M., Gillon, W. and Pai, E.F. The crystal structure of (S)-3-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase reveals an ancient fold for an ancient enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 6070-6078. [PMID: 16377641]

5. Morii, H., Nishihara, M. and Koga, Y. CTP:2,3-di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphate cytidyltransferase in the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 36568-36574. [PMID: 10960477]

[EC created 1992, modified 2009]

Return to EC 2.5.1 home page
Return to EC 2.5 home page
Return to EC 2 home page
Return to Enzymes home page
Return to IUBMB Biochemical Nomenclature home page