IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase

Reaction: ATP + a medium-chain fatty acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + a medium-chain acyl-CoA

Other name(s): fadK (gene name); lvaE (gene name); butyryl-CoA synthetase; fatty acid thiokinase (medium chain); acyl-activating enzyme; fatty acid elongase; fatty acid activating enzyme; fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase; butyrate—CoA ligase; butyryl-coenzyme A synthetase; L-(+)-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA ligase; short-chain acyl-CoA synthetase; medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase; butanoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)

Systematic name: medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)

Comments: Acts on fatty acids from C4 to C11 and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids. The enzyme from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida also acts on 4-oxo and 4-hydroxy derivatives.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, ExplorEnz, GTD, ,KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9080-51-7


1. Mahler, H.R., Wakil, S.J. and Bock, R.M. Studies on fatty acid oxidation. I. Enzymatic activation of fatty acids. J. Biol. Chem. 204 (1953) 453-468. [PMID: 13084616]

2. Massaro, E.J. and Lennarz, W.J. The partial purification and characterization of a bacterial fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase. Biochemistry 4 (1965) 85-90. [PMID: 14285249]

3. Websterlt, J.R., Gerowin, L.D. and Rakita, L. Purification and characteristics of a butyryl coenzyme A synthetase from bovine heart mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 240 (1965) 29-33. [PMID: 14253428]

4. Morgan-Kiss, R.M. and Cronan, J.E. The Escherichia coli fadK (ydiD) gene encodes an anerobically regulated short chain acyl-CoA synthetase. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 37324-37333. [PMID: 15213221]

5. Rand, J.M., Pisithkul, T., Clark, R.L., Thiede, J.M., Mehrer, C.R., Agnew, D.E., Campbell, C.E., Markley, A.L., Price, M.N., Ray, J., Wetmore, K.M., Suh, Y., Arkin, A.P., Deutschbauer, A.M., Amador-Noguez, D. and Pfleger, B.F. A metabolic pathway for catabolizing levulinic acid in bacteria. Nat Microbiol 2 (2017) 1624-1634. [PMID: 28947739]

[EC created 1961, modified 2011, modified 2018]

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