IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: long-chain fatty acid adenylyltransferase FadD28

Reaction: ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + holo-[mycocerosate synthase] = AMP + diphosphate + a long-chain acyl-[mycocerosate synthase] (overall reaction)
(1a) ATP + a long-chain fatty acid = diphosphate + a long-chain acyl-adenylate ester
(1b) a long-chain acyl-adenylate ester + holo-[mycocerosate synthase] = AMP + a long-chain acyl-[mycocerosate synthase]

Other name(s): fadD28 (gene name)

Systematic name: long-chain fatty acid:holo-[mycocerosate synthase] ligase (AMP-forming)

Comments: The enzyme, found in certain mycobacteria, activates long-chain fatty acids by adenylation and transfers them to EC, mycocerosate synthase. The enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of the virulent lipids dimycocerosates (DIM) and dimycocerosyl triglycosyl phenolphthiocerol (PGL).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number:


1. Fitzmaurice, A.M. and Kolattukudy, P.E. Open reading frame 3, which is adjacent to the mycocerosic acid synthase gene, is expressed as an acyl coenzyme A synthase in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 2608-2615. [PMID: 9098059]

2. Goyal, A., Yousuf, M., Rajakumara, E., Arora, P., Gokhale, R.S. and Sankaranarayanan, R. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the N-terminal domain of FadD28, a fatty-acyl AMP ligase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 62 (2006) 350-352. [PMID: 16582482]

3. Arora, P., Goyal, A., Natarajan, V.T., Rajakumara, E., Verma, P., Gupta, R., Yousuf, M., Trivedi, O.A., Mohanty, D., Tyagi, A., Sankaranarayanan, R. and Gokhale, R.S. Mechanistic and functional insights into fatty acid activation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Nat. Chem. Biol. 5 (2009) 166-173. [PMID: 19182784]

4. Menendez-Bravo, S., Comba, S., Sabatini, M., Arabolaza, A. and Gramajo, H. Expanding the chemical diversity of natural esters by engineering a polyketide-derived pathway into Escherichia coli. Metab. Eng. 24 (2014) 97-106. [PMID: 24831705]

5. Vergnolle, O., Chavadi, S.S., Edupuganti, U.R., Mohandas, P., Chan, C., Zeng, J., Kopylov, M., Angelo, N.G., Warren, J.D., Soll, C.E. and Quadri, L.E. Biosynthesis of cell envelope-associated phenolic glycolipids in Mycobacterium marinum. J. Bacteriol. 197 (2015) 1040-1050. [PMID: 25561717]

[EC created 2016 as EC, transferred 2017 to EC]

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