IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein ligase

Reaction: ATP + [prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein]-L-glutamate + [protein]-L-lysine = ADP + phosphate + N6-([prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein]-γ-L-glutamyl)-[protein]-L-lysine

Other name(s): PafA (ambiguous); Pup ligase; proteasome accessory factor A

Systematic name: [prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein]:[protein]-L-lysine

Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium glutamicum. It catalyses the ligation of the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) to a target protein by forming a bond between an ε-amino group of a lysine residue of the target protein and the γ-carboxylate of the C-terminal glutamate of the ubiquitin-like protein (Pup). The attachment of Pup, also known as Pupylation, marks proteins for proteasomal degradation.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number:


1. Sutter, M., Damberger, F.F., Imkamp, F., Allain, F.H. and Weber-Ban, E. Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) is coupled to substrates via the side chain of its C-terminal glutamate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 5610-5612. [PMID: 20355727]

2. Guth, E., Thommen, M. and Weber-Ban, E. Mycobacterial ubiquitin-like protein ligase PafA follows a two-step reaction pathway with a phosphorylated pup intermediate. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 4412-4419. [PMID: 21081505]

3. Ofer, N., Forer, N., Korman, M., Vishkautzan, M., Khalaila, I. and Gur, E. Allosteric transitions direct protein tagging by PafA, the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup) ligase. J. Biol. Chem. 288 (2013) 11287-11293. [PMID: 23471967]

4. Barandun, J., Delley, C.L., Ban, N. and Weber-Ban, E. Crystal structure of the complex between prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein and its ligase PafA. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 (2013) 6794-6797. [PMID: 23601177]

5. Striebel, F., Imkamp, F., Özcelik, D. and Weber-Ban, E. Pupylation as a signal for proteasomal degradation in bacteria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1843 (2014) 103-113. [PMID: 23557784]

[EC created 2015]

Return to EC 6.3.1 home page
Return to EC 6.3 home page
Return to EC 6 home page
Return to Enzymes home page
Return to IUBMB Biochemical Nomenclature home page