IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: protodeoxyviolaceinate monooxygenase

Reaction: protodeoxyviolaceinate + NAD(P)H + O2 = protoviolaceinate + NAD(P)+ + H2O

For diagram of reaction click here.

Glossary: protodeoxyviolaceinate = 3,5-di(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate
protoviolaceinate = 5-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate

Other name(s): vioD (gene name); protoviolaceinate synthase

Systematic name: protodeoxyviolaceinate,NAD(P)H:O2 oxidoreductase

Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum, participates in the biosynthesis of the violet pigment violacein. The product, protoviolaceinate, can be acted upon by EC, violacein synthase, leading to violacein production. However, it is very labile, and in the presence of oxygen can undergo non-enzymic autooxidation to the shunt product proviolacein.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number:


1. Balibar, C.J. and Walsh, C.T. In vitro biosynthesis of violacein from L-tryptophan by the enzymes VioA-E from Chromobacterium violaceum. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 15444-15457. [PMID: 17176066]

2. Shinoda, K., Hasegawa, T., Sato, H., Shinozaki, M., Kuramoto, H., Takamiya, Y., Sato, T., Nikaidou, N., Watanabe, T. and Hoshino, T. Biosynthesis of violacein: a genuine intermediate, protoviolaceinic acid, produced by VioABDE, and insight into VioC function. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2007) 4140-4142. [PMID: 17925955]

[EC created 2016, modified 2016]

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