IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: D-alanine—D-serine ligase

Reaction: D-alanine + D-serine + ATP = D-alanyl-D-serine + ADP + phosphate

Other name(s): VanC; VanE; VanG

Systematic name: D-alanine:D-serine ligase (ADP-forming)

Comments: The product of this enzyme, D-alanyl-D-serine, can be incorporated into the peptidoglycan pentapeptide instead of the usual D-alanyl-D-alanine dipeptide, which is formed by EC, D-alanine—D-alanine ligase. The resulting peptidoglycan does not bind the glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin, conferring resistance on the bacteria.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number:


1. Dutka-Malen, S., Molinas, C., Arthur, M. and Courvalin, P. Sequence of the vanC gene of Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174 encoding a D-alanine:D-alanine ligase-related protein necessary for vancomycin resistance. Gene 112 (1992) 53-58. [PMID: 1551598]

2. Park, I.S., Lin, C.H. and Walsh, C.T. Bacterial resistance to vancomycin: overproduction, purification, and characterization of VanC2 from Enterococcus casseliflavus as a D-Ala-D-Ser ligase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997) 10040-10044. [PMID: 9294159]

3. Fines, M., Perichon, B., Reynolds, P., Sahm, D.F. and Courvalin, P. VanE, a new type of acquired glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis BM4405. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43 (1999) 2161-2164. [PMID: 10471558]

4. Depardieu, F., Bonora, M.G., Reynolds, P.E. and Courvalin, P. The vanG glycopeptide resistance operon from Enterococcus faecalis revisited. Mol. Microbiol. 50 (2003) 931-948. [PMID: 14617152]

5. Watanabe, S., Kobayashi, N., Quinones, D., Hayakawa, S., Nagashima, S., Uehara, N. and Watanabe, N. Genetic Diversity of the Low-Level Vancomycin Resistance Gene vanC-2/vanC-3 and Identification of a Novel vanC Subtype (vanC-4) in Enterococcus casseliflavus. Microb. Drug Resist. 15 (2009) 1-9. [PMID: 19216682]

[EC created 2010]

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