IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature


Accepted name: acetyl-CoA carboxylase

Reaction: ATP + acetyl-CoA + hydrogencarbonate = ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA

For diagram of reaction click here or click here.

Other name(s): HFA1 (gene name); ACC1 (gene name); acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase; acetyl-CoA:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming)

Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:hydrogencarbonate ligase (ADP-forming)

Comments: This enzyme is a multi-domain polypeptide that catalyses three different activities - a biotin carboxyl-carrier protein (BCCP), a biotin carboxylase that catalyses the transfer of a carboxyl group from hydrogencarbonate to the biotin molecule carried by the carrier protein, and the transfer of the carboxyl group from biotin to acetyl-CoA, forming malonyl-CoA. In some organisms these activities are catalysed by separate enzymes (see EC, biotin carboxylase, and EC, acetyl-CoA carboxytransferase). The carboxylation of the carrier protein requires ATP, while the transfer of the carboxyl group to acetyl-CoA does not.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9023-93-2


1. Wakil, S.J. A malonic acid derivative as an intermediate in fatty acid synthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80 (1958) 6465.

2. Hatch, M.D. and Stumpf, P.K. Fat metabolism in higher plants. XVI. Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase and acyl coenzyme A-malonyl coenzyme A transcarboxylase from wheat germ. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 2879-2885. [PMID: 13905314]

3. Matsuhashi, M., Matsuhashi, S. and Lynen, F. Zur Biosynthese der Fettsäuren. V. Die Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase aus Rattenleber und ihre Aktivierung durch Citronsäure. Biochem. Z. 340 (1964) 263-289. [PMID: 14317958]

4. Matsuhashi, M., Matsuhashi, S., Numa, S. and Lynen, F. Zur Biosynthese der Fettsäuren. IV Acetyl CoA Carboxylase aus Hefe. Biochem. Z. 340 (1964) 243-262. [PMID: 14317957]

5. Vagelos, P. Regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis. Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 4 (1971) 119-166.

6. Trumble, G.E., Smith, M.A. and Winder, W.W. Purification and characterization of rat skeletal muscle acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Eur. J. Biochem. 231 (1995) 192-198. [PMID: 7628470]

7. Cheng, D., Chu, C.H., Chen, L., Feder, J.N., Mintier, G.A., Wu, Y., Cook, J.W., Harpel, M.R., Locke, G.A., An, Y. and Tamura, J.K. Expression, purification, and characterization of human and rat acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) isozymes. Protein Expr. Purif. 51 (2007) 11-21. [PMID: 16854592]

8. Kim, K.W., Yamane, H., Zondlo, J., Busby, J. and Wang, M. Expression, purification, and characterization of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Protein Expr. Purif. 53 (2007) 16-23. [PMID: 17223360]

[EC created 1961, modified 2018]

Return to EC 6.4.1 home page
Return to EC 6.4 home page
Return to EC 6 home page
Return to Enzymes home page
Return to IUBMB Biochemical Nomenclature home page